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Bradbard, M. R., Martin, C. L., Endsley, R. C., & Halverson, C. F. (1986). Theorizing the father–child relationship: Mechanisms and developmental outcomes. McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., & Tucker, C. J. (2004). Forbes, E. E., Ryan, N. D., Phillips, M. L., Manuck, S. B., Worthman, C. M., Moyles, D. L., et al. Troost, K. M., & Filsinger, E. (1993). Developmental Psychology, 32, 574–589. American Sociological Review, 65, 443–457. Such a model would be essential for the continuation and expansion of the study of gender in the family context and for the understanding of child gender development. Power, R. G., McGrath, M. P., Hughes, S. O., & Manire, S. H. (1994). They theorized that the differential exposure of boys and girls to gonadal hormones in the womb was related to subtle gender differences in brain development and behavior, which together with socialization influences would play a critical role in gender development. A meta-analysis that focused specifically on parental gender stereotypes found that mothers hold less traditional attitudes about gender than fathers (Tenenbaum & Leaper, 2002), but most studies in this meta-analysis used explicit gender stereotype measures. Consistent evidence (albeit from a small number of studies) is present for the internalization of parents’ gender socialization practices into children’s gender cognitions (e.g., Barak, Feldman, & Noy, 1991; Ex & Janssens, 1998; Turner & Gervai, 1995). Sex steroids and brain structure in pubertal boys and girls: A mini-review of neuroimaging studies. Kohlberg, L. (1966). However, it is also possible that social comparison and dis-identification processes become more important in later childhood and adolescence, because identity formation is an important goal at this age (Erikson, 1968). Gender differences in child aggression: Relations with gender-differentiated parenting and parents’ gender-role stereotypes. (2001). A structural family characteristic that is especially relevant for gender-related family processes is the family sex composition, which consists of the sibling sex configuration (same-sex versus mixed-sex siblings) and the parent sex configuration (single-parent family, two-parent family, heterosexual, homosexual). PubMed  Google Scholar. found that parental attention predicted later submissive emotions, and disharmonious emotions predicted later externalizing problems. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58(2), i-95. Last, there are studies that do not find effects of sibling sex configuration on child behavior (Hauser & Kuo, 1998). ), Of mice and women: Aspects of female aggression (pp. Ngun, T. C., Ghahramani, N., Sánchez, F. J., Bocklandt, S., & Vilain, E. (2011). The developmental course of gender differentiation: Conceptualizing, measuring, and evaluating constructs and pathways. (2018). For example, when gender is a salient issue in a family, due to the gender socialization behaviors of parents, this will encourage the continuation of gendered ideas in children, because they incorporate these early gender-related experiences in their own-gender schemas. Assessing children’s gender-stereotyped attitudes. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 95–113. Mother–child conversations about gender: Understanding the acquisition of essentialist beliefs. Gender representation in notable children’s picture books: 1995–1999. What's the difference between gender and sex? Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 72, 717–743. Martin, C. L., & Dinella, L. M. (2012). Gender differences in violence: Biology and/or socialization? Berenbaum, S. A., Blakemore, J. E. O., & Beltz, A. M. (2011). Social learning theory predicts the development of social behaviors from processes such as observational learning and reinforcement/punishment from social agents in the child’s environment. Sex Roles, 55, 259–266. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 947–963. To restrict the complexity of the model, the focus is only on proximal processes within the family context. Endendijk, J. J., Beltz, A. M., McHale, S. M., Bryk, K., & Berenbaum, S. A. The GFP model serves as a guiding framework for research on gender in the family context, calling for the integration of biological, social, and cognitive factors. Regarding parent sex configuration, data from the US Census Bureau have shown that the number of single-parent households increased in most Western countries from around 10% in the 1980s to around 30% in 2008 (US Census Bureau, 2012). Biosocial construction of sex differences and similarities in behavior. Does the gender composition of sibships affect women’s educational attainment? Lippa, R. A., Preston, K., & Penner, J. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Not only does gender involve identity, but it also involves expression. However, it is unclear whether these effects are organizational or activational. Scribd will begin operating the SlideShare business on December 1, 2020 Also, several adoption studies found that adopted children with a genetic predisposition toward antisocial behavior (from their biological parents) evoked more harsh and inconsistent discipline from their adoptive mothers and fathers (e.g., Ge et al., 1996; Riggins-Caspers, Cadoret, Knutson, & Langbehn, 2003). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Recently, evidence has started to emerge that a mixed-sex sibling configuration also has a gender-neutralizing effect on parental behaviors and stereotypes, indicating that parental gender stereotypes and gender talk were more egalitarian in families with mixed-sex siblings compared to families with same-sex siblings (Endendijk et al., 2013, 2014). Sex Roles, 42, 1007–1025. A central aspect of social learning theory is the hypothesis that gender development is influenced in part by children’s tendencies to imitate same-sex models more than opposite-sex models. Compliance and self-assertion: Young children’s responses to mothers versus fathers. Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review. However, these gender cognitions have been applied less frequently to gendered processes in the family context. Cognitive factors are implicit and explicit gender-role cognitions of parents and children. The actual performance is related to the consequences children anticipate in response to certain behaviors, from their parents or other people. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1047–1058. These findings might indicate that a hormonal predisposition toward cross-gendered behavior might be counteracted more by parental socialization influences in boys than in girls (Hines et al., 2002). Crouter, A. C., Helms-Erikson, H., Updegraff, K., & McHale, S. M. (1999). Hort, B. E., Fagot, B. I., & Leinbach, M. D. (1990). Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Knickmeyer, R., Taylor, K., Hackett, G., & Hines, M. (2009). Some studies found that parents did not treat their daughters with CAH differently than they treated their unaffected daughters (for a review, see Cohen-Bendahan et al., 2005). Observational learning from available models, especially same-gender models, in the child’s environment is an important factor in children’s gender development. Measurement of androgen and estrogen concentrations in cord blood: Accuracy, biological interpretation, and applications to understanding human behavioral development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 543–551. Stoneman, Z., Brody, G. H., & MacKinnon, C. E. (1986). Evidence for the prediction that gender-related information gets incorporated in schemas is provided by studies examining gender categorization in children, as the ability to respond to males and females as members of separate categories is a fundamental aspect of building a gender schema. The fatherhood report 2010–11. Single parents’ behavior indeed is often less traditional, because these parents have to fulfill both gender roles of economic provider and caretaker. Katz-Wise, S. L., Priess, H. A., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). In families with a mixed-sex sibling configuration (e.g., boy–girl, girl–boy), the opposite-sex siblings reinforce opposite-sex behavior in each other. Google Scholar. (2001). Future studies should also compare gendered family processes in families with typically developing children versus families with children with disorders of sex development (e.g., CAH), or children with gender identity disorder, to test whether the propositions of the GFP model hold in general or are specific to certain populations. For example, cognitions between family members influence their interactions. Skylar’s family was very accepting, as they had already expected this from the time he was quite young. Sibling gender configuration and family processes. Fetal testosterone predicts sexually differentiated childhood behaviour in girls and boys. Transmission of aggression through the imitation of aggressive models. The current article reviews and integrates research on gender development of children and adolescents in the family context. In addition, mothers’ parenting style was largely influenced by their own-gender-role stereotypes, which suggests a pathway from parents’ gender-role stereotypes to parent behavior, and from parent behavior to children’s gender-role stereotypes. However, because gender stereotypes are reinforced, some children learn to behave in ways that bring them the most reward, despite their authentic gender identity. Sexism and racism: Old fashioned and modern prejudices. Google Scholar. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Psychological Science, 20, 144–148. B. Becker, K. J. Berkley, N. Geary, E. Hampson, J. P. Herman, & E. A. Learn more. Measuring sex stereotypes: A multination study. The developmental interface between nature and nurture: A mutual influence model of child antisocial behavior and parent behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 633–645. Weisner, T. S., Garnier, H., & Loucky, J. Second, parents can provide direct gender-related instruction to their children, by the way they talk to their children about gender (Gelman, Taylor, & Nguyen, 2004).

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